coat-of-arms-crest-flag-swiss-key-emblemLocked Room Mysteries

Find an impossible murder!

A Proud Amazon Associate!

John Dickson Carr: Collections

j-d-carrJohn Dickson Carr (1906 – 1977) was an American author of detective stories, often referred to as ‘The King of The Locked Room Mystery ‘. Carr published under his own name, most notably producing the Dr. Gideon Fell series,  and also under the pen name of Carter Dickson, famous for the Sir Henry Merrivale series.

Carr was one of the greatest writers of the  so-called “Golden Age” of mystery fiction, writing complex, plot-driven stories in which the puzzle is paramount. He was clearly influenced by the works of Gaston Leroux, the Father Brown stories of G. K. Chesterton, and Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes. He was a master of the locked room mystery, in which a detective solves apparently impossible crimes. The Dr. Fell mystery, ‘The Hollow Man’ (1935), is usually considered to be Carr’s masterpiece, and was selected in a 1981 survey of experts, organized by Edward D. Hoch, as the best locked-room mystery of all time.  There can be little doubt that Carr was, and still remains, the single most important author in the Locked Room and Impossible Crime sub-genre!

A resident of England for a number of years, Carr is often grouped among the “British-style” mystery writers. Most (though not all) of his novels had English settings, especially country villages and estates, and English characters, and his  two best-known fictional detectives were both English. Carr was also a pioneer of the historical mystery genre.

(Source: Edited from Wikipedia John Dickson Carr)

Carr wrote 46 novels, under his own name, and another 26 under the pen name  Carter Dickson – plus over 100 short stories, plays, radio plays, and non-fiction, under both names. Due to the number of works written by this prolific author, we have divided his works into five different pages. Other than this page ‘John Dickson Carr: Collections’, there are four additional pages:

Go to John Dickson Carr: Novels
Go to John Dickson Carr: AKA Carter Dickson
Go to John Dickson Carr: Short Stories
Go to John Dickson Carr: Radio Plays & More

More on John Dickson Carr Wikipedia / Gadetection
More on Dr. Gideon Fell   More on Sir Henry Merrivale

John Dickson Carr: Short Story, Script  & Audio Collections

Queer ComplaintsThe Department of Queer Complaints (1940)
Carter Dickson 
Colonel March & four other stories

Best Review

Available only in used paperback and hardcover editions.

Book only

This collection includes:

The Department of Queer Complaints (1940) collects seven of the nine recorded cases that passed through the office of Colonel March:

The New Invisible Man (1938) in which a man witnesses a disembodied hand fire a gun at a man in a brightly lit room in the building across the street. 

The Footprint In The Sky (1940) in which the only snowy footprints going to and coming from the cottage of a woman attacked for her valuables were obviously made by a young woman who couldn’t really have done the deed. 

The Crime In Nobody’s Room (1938) in which a man wakes up in a room similar to his and finds a body, but afterwards the room has disappeared. 

Hot Money (1939) in which stolen loot is hidden in an invisible piece of furniture.

Death In The Dressing Room (1939) in which a dancer is slain and the most obvious suspects have perfect alibis. 

The Silver Curtain (1939) in which a man is stabbed alone in a cul de sac with no one near him except one witness who couldn’t have done it.

Error at Daybreak (1938) in which a man is stabbed while standing alone out on a breakwater surrounded by ocean. 

Some later editions also contained various combinations of five stories that did not feature Colonel March:

Persons or Things Unknown (1938) (8th story in most editions)

The Other Hangman

New Murders for Old

Blind Man’s Hood

The Empty House 

More on ‘The Department of Queer Complaints’

Fell DetectiveDr. Fell, Detective, and Other Stories (1947)
John Dickson Carr

Dr. Gideon Fell

Best Review

Available only in used paperback and hardcover editions.

Book only

‘Dr. Fell, Detective, and Other Stories’, is a mystery short story collection written by John Dickson Carr and first published in the US by Lawrence E. Spivak (The American Mercury) in 1947.

This collection includes:

Introduction by Ellery Queen (the same introduction appears in Carr’s essay The Grandest Game in the World)

The Adventures of Dr. Fell

The Proverbial Murder – first published in Ellery Queen’s Mystery Magazine in July 1943, as “The Proverbial Murderer”.
The Locked Room – first published in Strand Magazine in July 1940.
The Wrong Problem 
The Hangman Won’t Wait (Dr. Fell Radio Play)
A Guest in the House – AKA: The Incautious Burglar (a short version of Death and the Gilded Man) 

And Other Stories

The Devil in the Summer House (radio play)
Will You Walk Into My Parlor? (radio play)
Strictly Diplomatic

More on ‘Dr. Fell, Detective, and Other Stories’

third bullet ssThe Third Bullet and Other Stories of Detection (1954)
Carter Dickson
Detectives: Various

Best Review

Available only in used paperback and hardcover editions.

Book only

This collection includes:

Collects the title novella and six short stories originally published between 1942 and 1954.

– The Third Bullet 
– The Clue of the Red Wig 
– The House in Goblin Wood 
– The Wrong Problem 
– The Proverbial Murder 
– The Locked Room 
– The Gentleman From Paris 

More on ‘The Third Bullet and Other Stories’

Sherlock ExploitsThe Exploits of Sherlock Holmes (1954) 
John Dickson Carr & Adrian Conan Doyle
Sherlock Holmes

Best Review

Available only in used paperback and hardcover editions.

Book only

This collection includes:

“The Adventure of the Seven Clocks”
“The Adventure of the Gold Hunter”
“The Adventure of the Wax Gamblers”
“The Adventure of the Highgate Miracle”
“The Adventure of the Black Baronet”
“The Adventure of the Sealed Room”
“The Adventure of Foulkes Rath”
“The Adventure of the Abbas Ruby”
“The Adventure of the Dark Angels”
“The Adventure of the Two Women”
“The Adventure of the Deptford Horror”
“The Adventure of the Red Widow”

More on ‘The Exploits of Sherlock Holmes’

Explain MIraclesThe Men Who Explained Miracles (1963)
John Dickson Carr
Fell, Merrivale and Others

Best Review

Available only in used paperback and hardcover editions. Not to be confused with ‘The Man Who Explained Miracles’ by Douglas G. Greene (1995), which is a biography of John Dickson Carr.

Book only

The men who explained miracles – John Dickson Carr’s famous detective trio – turn their hands to a set of sinister puzzles in this exciting collection. Six Short Stories and a novelette:

Colonel March, of the Department of Queer Complaints:
William Wilson’s Racket
The Empty Flat

Dr. Gideon Fell:
The Incautious Burglar – AKA: A Guest in the House (a short version of Death and the Gilded Man)
Invisible Hands

Two non-series “Secret Service” stories:
Strictly Diplomatic
The Black Cabinet: A story in which an attempt to assassinate Napoleon Bonaparte is foiled by a figure from another context.

The novelette: All in a Maze: Sir Henry Merrivale and ‘The Ministry of  Miracles’

More on ‘The Men Who Explained Miracles’

Door DoomThe Door to Doom and Other Detections (1980) 
John Dickson Carr


Best Review

Available only in used paperback and hardcover editions.

Book only

This collection includes:

First published in 1980, then reissued in 1991 as the third volume in International Polygonics’s omnibus collections of John Dickson Carr’s short stories. The 1991 edition differs from earlier printings by including, for the first time, the complete version of Carr’s essay on detective fiction, “The Grandest Game in the World.”

As Drink the Dead …

4 Henri Bencolin Stories:
The Shadow of the Goat
The Fourth Suspect
The Ends of Justice
Murder In Number Four

Review of Bencolin stories

3 Supernatural Stories:
The Man Who Was Dead
The Door to Doom 
Terror’s Dark Tower

6 radio plays:
Cabin B-13 (radio play)
The Hangman Won’t Wait (Dr. Fell radio play)
“The Phantom Archer” (radio play)
The Bride Vanishes (radio play) 
Will You Make a Bet with Death? (radio play)
The Devil in the Summer-House (radio play) 

2 Sherlock Holmes playlets:
The Adventure of the Cock-Singleton Papers (Sherlockian playlet)
The Adventure of the Paradol Chamber (Sherlockian playlet)

2 Essays:
Stand and Deliver! (essay)
The Grandest Game in the World (1946) (1991 edition only)

More on ‘The Door to Doom and Other Detections’

Fell FoulplayFell and Foul Play (1991)
John Dickson Carr
Includes ‘The Third Bullet

Best Review

Available only in used paperback and hardcover editions.

Book only 

This collection includes:

From The Department of Queer Complaints, 1940:
The Other Hangman
Persons or Things Unknown

From The Third Bullet and other Stories, 1954: 
The Wrong Problem (Dr. Fell)
The Proverbial Murder (Dr. Fell)
The Gentleman from Paris

From The Men Who Explained Miracles, 1963:
The Incautious Burglar (Dr. Fell)
Invisible Hands (Dr. Fell)
The Black Cabinet

From The Dead Sleep Lightly, 1983:
The Black Minute (Dr. Fell radio play)
The Dead Sleep Lightly (Dr. Fell radio play)

The full 1937 version of ‘The Third Bullet’

Uncollected material:

Who Killed Matthew Corbin? (Dr. Fell radio play, previously published without Dr. Fell)
The Dim Queen

Merrivale MarchMerrivale, March and Murder (1991)
Carter Dickson
Sir Henry Merrivale / Colonel March

Best Review

Available only in used paperback and hardcover editions.

Book only

From The Department of Queer Complaints, 1940:

The New Invisible Man (Colonel March)
The Crime in Nobody’s Room (Colonel March)
Error at Daybreak (Colonel March)
Hot Money (Colonel March)
Death in the Dressing-Room (Colonel March)
The Silver Curtain (Colonel March)
The Footprint in the Sky (Colonel March)
Blind Man’s Hood
New Murders for Old

From The Third Bullet and other Stories, 1954:
The House in Goblin Wood (Sir Henry Merrivale)
The Clue of the Red Wig

From The Men Who Explained Miracles, 1963:
All in a Maze (Sir Henry Merrivale)
The Empty Flat (Colonel March)
William Wilson’s Racket (Colonel March)
Strictly Diplomatic

Also includes the following uncollected material:
The Diamond Pentacle
Lair of the Devil-Fish (radio play)
Scotland Yard’s Christmas

John Dickson Carr: Radio and Theatre Scripts

Sleep LightlyThe Dead Sleep Lightly (1983)
John Dickson Carr
9 Radio plays collected and edited by Doug Greene

Best Review

Available only in used paperback and hardcover editions.

Book only

This collection includes: (Comments from Gadetection Review – see link below)

Introduction: “John Dickson Carr and the Radio Mystery”

Play: “The Black Minute” (1940)
Setting: London, 1940.
Comment: Dr. Gideon Fell solves a case of murder during a seance in a locked and completely darkened room. 

Play: “The Devil’s Saint” (1943)
Setting: Paris and Touraine, 1927.
Comment: An impetuous young man bets he can spend the night in a haunted room in a castle. If he wins, he can wed; if he loses, will he be — dead? 

Play: “The Dragon in the Pool” (1944)
Setting: An English country house, early 1940s.
Comment: Sometimes your worst enemy can be yourself, even if your intentions are good, a fact Andrew Prentice doesn’t live long enough to appreciate; in this play, a victim turns into a sleuth and then into a victimizer — quite an evolution for a character.

Play: “The Dead Sleep Lightly” (1943)
Setting: London, 1933.
Comment: A man is convinced he’s being haunted; Gideon Fell unveils the ghost and uncovers hidden motives. “‘The Dead Sleep Lightly’ remains one of John Dickson Carr’s most memorable accomplishments. With its shuddery atmosphere, its seemingly inexplicable events, and its rational conclusion, it is Carr at his finest.” 

Play: “Death Has Four Faces” (1944)
Setting: La Bandelette, France, 1930s.
Comment: A young Englishman “loses what you call the shirt” at the roulette table and comes close to losing his head on the guillotine when he’s charged with an impossible murder. A re-telling of his story ‘The Silver Curtain’.

Play: “Vampire Tower” (1944)
Setting: Kent, 1930s.
Comment: A young man attempts to catch a killer — but catches something else entirely.
Play: “The Devil’s Manuscript” (1944)
Setting: Weyford, an English seaside town, 1934.
Comment: Never accept a challenge offered by a writer of ghost stories; the last line of the play is a killer. 

Play: “White Tiger Passage” (1955)
Setting: Brighton, 1954.
Comment: Andy Hardy and Nancy Drew versus the Slasher of the Boulevards: “Only a handful of (Carr’s) radio scripts … feature hilarious coincidences worthy of P.G. Wodehouse, combined with subtle clues worthy of John Dickson Carr. The best of these is ‘White Tiger Passage’ …”

Play: “The Villa of the Damned” (1955)
Setting: Rome and Naples at the time of Mussolini.
Comment: A beautiful woman wants to revive a dead lover — dead for three hundred years. 

More on Death Sleeps Lightly (gadetection)

Speak DevilSpeak of The Devil (1994)
John Dickson Carr
8 part radio play

Best Review

Available only in used paperback and hardcover editions.

Book only

Speak of the Devil. Crippen & Landru, Publishers, Norfolk, VI, 1994

This collection includes:

Carr’s eight-part radio script, broadcast on the BBC in 1941

13 Gallows13 to the Gallows (2008)
John Dickson Carr
A collection of 4 radio plays

Best Review

Available in eBook, and used paperback and hardcover editions. 

Book  eBook

Inspector Silence Takes the Air (with Val Gielgud)
The question is: what became of the gun—not the one loaded with blanks, not the one that had never been fired, but the one that fired the bullets that killed an actor in a closed studio during a live broadcast.

Thirteen to the Gallows (1944)  (with Val Gielgud)
A pair of impossible crimes, two fatal falls from a belfry by victims who seem to have been alone when they plunged to their deaths. It is murder, but the only clue is a scattering of Arum Lilies

Intruding Shadow (1945)
What happens when a blackmail victim’s suitor’s plan to intimidate the blackmailer is interrupted by murder!

She Slept Lightly
A Napoleonic thriller. The miraculous reappearance of a hanged young woman just before the turbulent battle of Waterloo.

John Dickson Carr: Audio Collections

Carr CDThe Old Time CBS Radio Show ‘Suspense’
John Dickson Carr
22 selected radio plays 

Best Review

Available in MP3 CD or other archive download formats.

MP3 CD /  ‘Suspense’ Internet Archives / 20 MP3 CD Set

The Carr collection includes:

Cabin B-13 
Murder By Experts 
The Burning Court
Lord of the Witch Doctors
The Devil in the Summer House
Will You Make a Bet with Death
Menace in Wax
The Body Snatchers
The Bride Vanishes
Till Death Do Us Part
Two Sharp Knives
Nothing up My Sleeve
The Pit and the Pendulum
The Devil’s Saint
The Customers Like Murder
The Dead Sleep Lightly
Fire Burn and Cauldron Bubble
A Moment of Darkness
Death Flies Blind
Mr Markham, Antique Dealer
Five Canaries in the Room
The Man Without a Body
Marry for Murder
 The Locked Room

Note: The entire downloadable Internet Archive file for the CBS radio series ‘Suspense’ contains 909 episodes. Most of the above titles are on Page 1 which contains 92 items. The 20 MP3 CD set of ‘Suspense’ also includes the entire series. All 909 episodes in the series can be listened to and download as singles at: Suspense: Single Titles

BBC CarrGideon Fell Mysteries: BBC Radio 4
Audio Book Cassette 1997
John Dickson Carr

Locked Room Review

Available only in Audio Cassette.

Audio Cassette

This collection includes:

The Hollow Man

The House in Gallows Lane

In 1997, the BBC began to broadcast a one-hour Gideon Fell series starring the late Donald Sinden, produced and directed by Enyd Williams, and dramatised by Peter Ling. Ling made various changes to the stories – but generally followed the core of the original plot. Unfortunately, though the first two episodes of this series were released in audio cassette format, the others six have never been released. They are occasional rebroadcast on BBC Radio 4 Extra and many ‘grey’ copies are available for private sale, but cannot be purchased from major distributors.

The Dr Gideon Fell Mysteries (BBC Radio, 1997-2001):

The Hollow Man – 2 parts (26 March & 2 April 1997)
The House in Gallows Lane – 2-parts (8 & 15 October 1997), a re-titled adaptation of Carr’s novel, Till Death Do Us Part
To Wake the Dead – 2 parts (22 & 29 October 1997)
The Blind Barber (5 November 1997)
The Black Spectacles (9 May 1998)
The Mad Hatter Mystery (3 July 1999)
He Who Whispers (25 March 2000)
Below Suspicion (20 January 2001)

Also watch for ‘grey’ copies of ‘The Genius of Gideon Fell’, a documentary made as part of the BBC radio series ‘The Radio Detectives’ by historian Jeffrey Richards, which is devoted to Gideon Fell on radio, including coverage of the early Carr plays from the 1940s.

Many Thanks to ‘Tipping My Fedora’ for unravelling this mystery. Read this great review!

murder Experts JDCMurder by Experts – Old Time Radio Show – Host: John Dickson Carr


Best Review

Available in MP3 CD or other archive download formats.

Internet Archive   MP3CD  Audio CD

Murder by Experts: John Dickson Carr hosted the first year of this program, and wrote some of the material. See review for all titles in this series.

The MP3 collection and archive files include:

Episode 01 – Summer Heat (1949-06-13)
Episode 04 – Two Coffins To Fill (1949-07-04)
Episode 05 – Prescription For Murder (1949-07-11)
Episode 06 – The Creeper (1949-07-18)
Episode 07 – The Big Money (1949-07-25)
Episode 09 – Dark Island (1949-08-08)
Episode 10 – Dig Your Own Grave (1949-08-15)
Episode 12 – Its Luck That Counts (1949-08-29)
Episode 13 – Return Trip (1949-09-05)
Episode 14 – I Dreamt I Died (1949-09-12)
Episode 16 – The Unseeing Witness (1949-09-26)
Episode 29 – Case Of The Missing Mind (1949-12-26)
Episode 45 – Two Can Die as Cheaply as One (1950-04-17)
Episode 46 – Conspiracy (1950-04-24)
Episode 50 – Threes a Crowd (1950-05-22)

Note: Celebrated authors John Dickson Carr and Bret Halliday (by proxy) were the hosts of Murder by Experts. This scintillating series was crafted by the suspense specialists who also brought Mysterious Traveler, The Sealed Book, and Strange Dr. Weird to radio: David Kogan and Robert A. Arthur.

Each tightly-woven thriller has been selected by an elite member of the Mystery Writers of America. And, whether the plots of these tales play out on an isolated island, in the snow-swept surge of a blizzard, in a locked room, or in the warm bed right beside you, they all lead to just one place…murder!

Appt FearClassic BBC Radio Horror: Appointment with Fear (1943/ 1944)
Details: Appointment with Fear / The Man in Black (BBC, 1943-49, 1955)
John Dickson Carr, Monckton Hoffe

Best Review

Available in Audible, Audio CD, and MP3 CD formats. 

Audible  Audio CD  MP3 CD  

The BBC audio CD collection includes:

Four chilling episodes from this famous 1940s BBC radio series, introduced by Valentine Dyall, AKA The Man in Black.

These are the four sole surviving episodes from the BBC archive:

The Pit and the Pendulum by Edgar Allan Poe (18/9/1943) / script by John Dickson Carr

The Speaking Clock (Mr. Markham series) by John Dickson Carr (13/4/1944)

The Clock Strikes Eight by John Dickson Carr (18/5/1944)

And The Deep Shuddered by Monckton Hoffe (20/11/1945)

Amongst the cast are Marjorie Westbury, Marius Goring and Gladys Spencer.

The MP3 CD also includes:

Morning Glory
My Fate Cries Out

Cabin-B-13-mp3Cabin B-13 Radio Series
Details: Cabin B-13 (CBS, 1948-49)
John Dickson Carr

Best Review

Available only in MP3 CD format.


This collection includes:

Cabin B-13 (From ‘Suspense’)

A Razor In Fleet Street (aka: Bill and Brenda Leslie) (Episode 1)

The Bride Vanishes

The Sleep of Death

The original radio series ran for 25 episodes – but only these three audio files have survived from this program! The full list of titles in this Carr series:

Cabin B-13 – “Bill and Brenda Leslie” (July 5, 1948)
Cabin B-13 – “The Man Who Couldn’t Be Photographed” (July 12, 1948) (October 31, 1948)
Cabin B-13 – “Death Has Four Faces” (July 19, 1948)
Cabin B-13 – “The Blindfolded Knife Thrower” (July 26, 1948)
Cabin B-13 – “No Useless Coffin” (August 2, 1948)
Cabin B-13 – “The Nine Black Reasons” (August 9, 1948)
Cabin B-13 – “The Count of Monte Carlo” (August 16, 1948)
Cabin B-13 – “Below Suspicion” (August 23, 1948)
Cabin B-13 – “The Power of Darkness” (August 31, 1948)
Cabin B-13 – “The Footprint in the Sky” (September 7, 1948)
Cabin B-13 – “The Man With the Iron Chest” (September 14, 1948)
Cabin B-13 – “The Street of Seven Daggers” (October 3, 1948)
Cabin B-13 – “The Danger from Stanboul” (October 10, 1948)
Cabin B-13 – “Death in the Desert” (October 17, 1948)
Cabin B-13 – “The Island of Coffins” (October 24, 1948)
Cabin B-13 – “The Most Respectable Murder” (November 7, 1948)
Cabin B-13 – “The Curse of the Bronze Lamp” (November 14, 1948)
Cabin B-13 – “The Lair of the Devil Fish” (November 21, 1948)
Cabin B-13 – “The Dead Man’s Knock” (November 28, 1948)
Cabin B-13 – “The Man With Two Heads” (December 5, 1948)
Cabin B-13 – “The Bride Vanishes” (December 12, 1948)
Cabin B-13 – “Till Death Do Us Part” (December 19, 1948)
Cabin B-13 – “The Sleep of Death” (December 26, 1948)
Cabin B-13 – “The Dancer From Stambul” (January 2, 1949)

murder clinicMurder Clinic Radio Series (1942/1943)
Details: Murder Clinic (Mutual, 1942) Death In The Dressing Room 42-09-29
Seven Famous Mysteries

Best Review

Available in MP3 CD or other archive download formats.

MP3 CD   Internet Archive

This collection includes:

Murder Clinic – Gulfstream Green
Murder Clinic – Tragedy At Marsden Manor
Murder Clinic – Governor Of Cape Haitian
Murder Clinic – Holloway Flat Murdermax C
Murder Clinic – A Scrap Of Lace
Murder Clinic – Death In The Dressing Room (Carr)
Murder Clinic – Tragedy Of Marsdon Manor

WOR, the Mutual flagship in New York City, launched this show called ‘Murder Clinic’ in 1942. Some of the famous names associated with the show include Agatha Christie, G. K. Chesterton, and John Dickson Carr. The show introduced these great stories and their great detectives to a wider audience. The show ended in October 1943 after moving around the dial without ever really finding a permanent home.

InternetArchiveJohn Dickson Carr Radio Plays
Listen on Line!


Best Review

Individual episodes can be accessed at:

You Tube    Suspense on Internet Archive

These collections include:

Suspense: Mr Markham, Antique Dealer by The Radio Ghost on YouTube 28:52
Suspense: The Dead Sleep Lightly by The Radio Ghost on YouTube 29:35
Suspense: Fire Burn & Cauldron Bubble by The Radio Ghost on YouTube 29:19
Suspense: The Bride Vanishes by The Radio Ghost on YouTube 29:12
Suspense: Till Death Do Us Part by The Radio Ghost on YouTube 29:29
Suspense: The Devil in the Summer House by The Radio Ghost on YouTube 30:05
Suspense: Will You Make a Bet With Death? by The Radio Ghost on YouTube 29:51
Suspense: Menace in Wax by The Radio Ghost on YouTube 28:46
Suspense: The Body Snatchers by The Radio Ghost on YouTube 29:24
Suspense: Cabin B13 by The Radio Ghost on YouTube 29:49
Suspense: The Customers Like Murder by The Radio Ghost on YouTube 28:46
Suspense: The Man Without a Body by The Radio Ghost on YouTube 29:51
Suspense: Five Canaries in the Room by The Radio Ghost on YouTube 27:50
Suspense: Marry For Murder by The Radio Ghost on YouTube 29:40
Suspense:Nothing Up My Sleeve by The Radio Ghost on YouTube 29:37
Suspense: The Lord of the Witch Doctors by The Radio Ghost on YouTube 29:00
Suspense: Death Flies Blind by The Radio Ghost on YouTube 29:07
Cabin B13: The Sleep of Death by The Radio Ghost on YouTube 27:32
Suspense: The Pit & the Pendulum by The Radio Ghost on YouTube

John Dickson Carr Bibliography

Locked Room 101: The Masters

The Locked Room Mystery home


John Dickson Carr: Collections — No Comments

Leave a Reply